Unless you send it off a mountain or into a lake, you should get years of stoke out of your investment. Each component has a different lifespan, broken down further below.
There’s an excellent article over at thetechleaders.com which breaks down the lifespan of the components in a Onewheel, but here are the footnotes: The main components that suffer from age and use in a Onewheel include the tire and the battery. If you ride 5 miles per day, you can expect many years of life out of your board; as many as 8 for the battery! Even riders jetting around on consistently long rides of 20 miles per day, you can still expect a year of life on the stock tire, and years of life on the battery. So don’t sweat about the miles, go out and get some stoke. See the table below taken from the referenced article.